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Plastic Bottles

Plastic bottles can be made up of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) PS and PP Polypropylene. They are mostly used for the storage of liquids like mineral water, medical syrups and cooking oil etc. Now a days they have taken over the food industry except wine and beer. The plastic bottles are manufactured by different methods and the method depend upon its usage for example high-grade Polythene, low-grade Polythene etc. After the consumption of material stored in plastic bottles, they go throw a recycling process which includes following steps:

Sorting

The plastic bottles are separated from garbage. The government and many recycling agencies have started collecting them separately from households and other buildings. After their collection, they are brought to the redemption center. The bottles are separated on the basis of their manufacturing material and color. Then, they are crushed and pressed into bales and sold to the recycling companies.

Processing

After sorting, the recycling companies melt the material by different processes to make different products. Such as, thermal DE polymerization is used for the reduction of complex organic materials into light raw oil. The process involves application of high degrees pressure to compress and break the plastic molecules.

Converting

After processing, materials pass through a heating process where 900-1000 degrees Celsius flame is used. Plastic is rotated in large rotating drums and melt down. After melting, filtration process is performed to remove the residual. They are converted to biodegradable polymers or polyester fiber.

Manufacturing

The recycled form of plastic depends upon the grade and nature of the plastic. It can be used to manufacture various products. Low grade plastic bottles, syrup bottles, kitchen bowls and plastic chairs can be manufactured from the recycled plastic after passing through certain steps. It can also be molded into plastic bags, bottle caps and foam packaging. However, the concept of conversion of recycled plastic liquid into liquid fuel and oil is also emerging.

Toothpaste Tubes

Tubes of toothpaste are one the most commonly used oral care products. Toothpaste tubes can be made up of a number of materials including aluminium, plastic, nylon or a combination of plastic and aluminium. Mostly they are made of the Low-Density Polyethylene. (LDPE). These products are recyclable for reuse. They can be used to make pencil holders, barriers to the knife blade etc in the household. However, toothpaste tubes are recycled at commercial scale to manufacture useful new products.

Sorting

Toothpaste tubes are separated from the rest of the garbage by hand picking or machines. These machines are designed to separate aluminium or plastic from the rest of the materials. Most of the toothpaste tubes are sorted by people. They send the empty toothpaste tubes for recycling. Many companies give bonus points the consumer whose providing with the empty tubes. After sorting out the toothpaste tubes, first of all, the threaded necks on the opening of the tubes are removed.

Processing

Toothpaste tubes should be cleaned in order to get rid of the leftover toothpaste. Toothpaste tubes are shredded into very tiny pieces. In this way, the surface areas with residuals are exposed. They are passed through a washing cycle where they are cleaned up. Washing can be done by water or a biocide chemical, the solution which is used to dissolve bio-based materials. In this way, any of the residual toothpaste is removed from the inner surface of the tube.

Converting

After the shredding and washing of toothpaste tubes, they are dried in ovens. Sometimes they are left overnight for self-drying. These shredded tubes are converted into pallets in the pelletizing machine. Pallets are like small sheets. In some recycling units, tubes go through melting before conversion into the molds for new recycled products.

Manufacturing

After the pallet formation, they are shipped to the manufacturing industry. This recycled material can be used in making plastic toys. They are melted and molded into the desired shape. Some companies are using the recycled toothpaste tube’s plastic for making other building materials and furniture.

Aluminium Can

Aluminum can, which is commonly known as the tin can, is basically made up of the chemical element, aluminum. It is used for packaging purposes. Most common use of an aluminum can is in food and beverages packing (75%). However, it is also used for storing and transporting chemicals, oils and other liquids. When an aluminum can is discarded after, it goes through a recycling process to make it useful again. The recycling life of an aluminum can is as follows;

Sorting

Nowadays, aluminum cans are made up of a mixture of an aluminum element with 1% of manganese and magnesium each. After it is dumped, the cans are brought to the treatment plant. Where they are separated from the rest of the garbage. Pieces of paper, plastic, tissues or any other material other than aluminum are removed manually. Although, they can also be sorted out by overbend electromagnet machine. Aluminum is separated by steel cans by this machine.
Then the magnets inside the drum start rotating at high speed. This gives rise to eddy current (acting as reverse current) which pushes the non-magnetic material like aluminum out if the way and thus aluminum cans are separated from the rest of the garbage.

Processing

Now, aluminum cans are ready for processing. In the reprocessing plant, aluminum is melted down at 1220 degree Fahrenheit (660 degree Celsius) in foundries (factories where metals are melted, poured into castings and molded into specific shapes). Aluminum cans may pass through shredding and de-coating before going through the melting process. This process results in the removal of inks and coatings on the cans.

Converting

The melted aluminum is converted into large blocks known as ingots. Each ingot can be made up of about 1.6 million aluminum cans. Ignots are large, compressed blocks of aluminum. They can be of rectangular, square or round shaped.

Manufacturing

Ignots are transferred to the mills. In mills, they are rolled and pressed by machines into sheets. The sheets are more flexible and have greater strengths. Now the aluminum sheets are formed, it can be remanufactured and converted to a variety of packaging materials. It is then molded into the desired shape by drawing, trimming of the edges, inside spraying of sheets, printing and furnishing. Finally, the can is manufactured and send to the indented industry for packaging purposes.

Glass Bottles

Glass bottles are made up of glass. They vary in size and nature of glass. They are used to store liquid to solid products like beers, wines, jams etc. These types of bottles are utilitarian. They are closed by different lids like cork, screw caps and stoppers. They are manufactured by different methods like blowpipe which was invented in around 1 BC. After this semi-automatic machine called press and blow was invented and nowadays automatic bottles machines are used for the manufacturing of glass which was invented by Michael in 1904. There are different types of glass like colored, non-colored and heat resistant glass.

Sorting

The first step in recycling is sorting. The glass material is separated from other household materials. Then the lids on them are removed and the colored and non-colored glass bottles are separated.

Processing

After glass bottles are separated, the glass is washed to remove any leftover material. Then, it is torn into small pieces called cullet. Cullet are cleaned via screening which is done by vacuum. The detection process is also applied to remove impurities like plastic, paper etc. Because they can lead to low quality of recycled glass.

Converting

After the refining process, the leftover is mixed with limestone soda ash and sand. They are melted overnight at 4200 degrees centigrade and poured into molds. They are cooled down to 1000 degrees centigrade and then the pieces are put in the insulated boxes. The process lowers the temperature from 900 degrees centigrade to room temperature so that the glass does not crack.

Manufacturing

After the processing and converting, recycled glass is shipped to intended manufacturing industry. Recycling of glass through equipment like glass color sort is cost effective and uses less energy and time to make new glass. This is also nature-friendly. The recycled glass is used to make new jars, bottles etc. The use of recycled glass as aggregate in concrete has become popular. This concrete is long-lasting and has better thermal insulation.

Carton

Carton is also called a simple box. They are made up of paperboard or corrugated fiberboard. There are many types of cartons used in packing like folding cartons, egg cartons, aseptic cartons and gable top cartons. The cartons are mostly of the right angle and straight edges. Cartons with octagonal and cross sections are used for special packing. Other than packing, cartons has also another used which is carton-Pierre. This is used for making raised ornaments on walls and ceiling decorations.

Sorting

The first step in the recycling of the cartons is collecting them. They are collected on the basis of ordinary grade, medium grade and high grade. After collection, they are sorted on the basis of material they are made up of and piled separately.

Processing

Processing process comprises of Pulping, Filtering and De-inking. After sorting the cartons are soaked in the mixture water and chemicals to break the fibers of a carton and make the pulp. Once the pulp is formed it is combined with wood chips to strength the fibers which help them in solidification. After pulping the fibers are passed through different filters to remove an impurity like tape etc. De-inking is done when the pulp is put into the flotation device filled with the chemicals that strips off all the ink. This process cleans the pulp thoroughly and is ready for its final stage.

Converting

The cleaned material is mixed with fresh material and dried over a table or belt. As the material dries it passes through a machine which drained the extra water and helps to form a solid sheet called liner board.

Manufacturing

Then it is shipped to manufacturing companies where new cartons are made out of them. These cartons are designed by the machines and the quality of carton is determined the amount of recycled material added in the mixtures. After manufacturing, they are shipped to the intended packaging industry.

Leftover Food

Food is basically the most primary need for the human being’s existence. Despite the fact, millions of tons of food are thrown into the garbage from household as well as commercial settings. Our food products including vegetables, fruits, cooked dishes leftovers, eggs, fish etc. Food leftovers can be very useful.

Converting

  1. In vessel Compositing- The material is then left outside to develop for a further 1-3 months with normal turning and checks to guarantee quality.
  2. Anaerobic Digestion- As it severs down it gives methane, which is gathered and changed over into biogas and used to create power, warmth or transport energizes.

Processing

Processing of the food depends upon the nature of the food product. Most of the times the whole food leftover waste can have two fates:

  1. In vessel Compositing- In this food leftovers are combined with plant squander (garden waste) destroying it and after that treating the soil it in an encased system for around 14-30 days at a temperature of up to 70 degrees Celsius accelerate the procedure and guarantee any destructive organisms are killed.
  2. Anaerobic Digestion- This process utilizes microorganisms to separate sustenance squander, creature excrement, slurries and vitality edits without oxygen, inside an encased framework.

Sorting

Almost more than half of the garbage comprises of food leftovers. It can be sorted out by handpicking. However, machines can be used to remove any plastic, steel, aluminum or iron particles in order to separate the food materials. There are recycling companies’ collection centers in major cities to gather the food leftovers. Sorting out of food products can be hard and timely. Because of the smell and chances of the microbial attack.

Manufacturing

The recycled food as a result of In-vessel compositing can be utilized as a soil conditioner. However, as a result of Anaerobic Digestion, supplement rich digestate is produced that can be utilized as compost for horticulture and in land recovery or feed to plants. Other materials such as eggshells can be turned into a paper mosaic which can be placed around the plants to put off the insects. This will be a great step to help someone and prevent the organic food decomposing in landfills. Vegetables and plat peel off can be used as fertilizers to plants and food to pets. Recycled food leftovers are mostly converted to energy as methane or biogas. It can also be used to produce highly effective fertilizers and other biological products.

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